QUACKGRASS, Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. 1, spike; 2, stems, leaves, and inflorescence; 3, auricle and ligule; 4, seed; 5, spikelets; 6, buds on rhizome; 7, new shoots; 8, origin of new shoots; 9, rhizomes and roots. Perennial, reproducing by seed and underground rhizomes. Rhizomes vary from 2 to 8 inches (5 to 20 cm) in depth, depending on soil type and soil treatment. Individual rhizomes live only two summers and one winter but new ones develop from buds in the axils of reduced leaves. Roots arise only at nodes. Stems 1-1/2 to 3 feet (45 to 90 cm) tall, with smooth culms and 3 to 6 joints. Leaves have auricles, ligule 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) long, hairy lower sheaths, upper sheaths smooth or nearly so. Spike has 3 to 7 short-awned florets in a spikelet. Found in open waste places, pastures, and most cropped areas. It requires special control methods because of its weedy habits. Although it is considered a primary noxious weed in most states, it can often be used for pasture or hay.