BLUE VERVAIN, Verbena hastata L. 1, leaf from middle of stem; 2, upper part of stem; 3, seed; 4, distribution. Perennial, reproducing by seed and short rhizomes. Stems erect, branched above, 2 to 4 feet (0.6 to 1.2 m) tall somewhat rough. Leaves opposite, simple, toothed, lanceolate, with short petioles. Flowers small, blue, in short compact spikes. Seeds borne 4 in a pod; brown, oblong. Found mostly in pastures, roadsides, fence rows, and waste places, especially on low ground.

 HOARY VERVAIN, Verbena stricta Vent. 4, distribution; 5, upper part of stem in flower; 6, single flower; 7, pod enclosed by calyx; 8, seed. Similar to the above species but hairy all over. Leaves shorter, less pointed, without petioles. Flowers purplish, borne in long spikes. Usually found in upland pastures.

 WHITE VERVAIN, Verbena urticifolia L. 9, distribution. Similar to blue verbain. Leaves ovate with scattered hairs. Flowers white on long slender spikes. Frequently found in or near wooded areas, pastures, and waste areas.